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How does a universal testing machine work?

Normally, universal testing machines have a moveable struture which can vertically move up and down to realize both tensional and compressional tests.

Tensional tests include tensile, tear and peel tests

Compressional tests include compressive, shearing, bending and flexural tests

Universal testing machines can be classified into two categories daccording to their driving methods: servo-hydraulic drive and electromechanical drive.

Servo-hydraulic: it has a tensile structure mounted on a oil cylinder which is used to drive the tensile structure up and down, and the oil feeding rate to oil cylinder is controlled by a servo valve. such as Liangong servo-hydraulic universal testing machine

Electromechanical: it has two screws and a moveable crossbeam, the crossbeam could move up and down to achive tensile and compressional tests, a servo motor which is contrlled by a servo drive to drive the crossbeam up and down.

such as Liangong electromechnical universal testing machine